Observers from the Commonwealth condemned the Zimbabwe army’s deadly use of force to break up protests by opposition supporters claiming a presidential election was rigged by the ruling party.
Former colonial power Britain said it was deeply concerned by the situation, while the United Nations called from restraint from all sides in the bloody aftermath to Monday’s election.
President Emmerson Mnangagwa said he was talking to opposition leader Nelson Chamisa to defuse tension after clashes on the streets of Harare in which troops opened fire on opposition demonstrators, killing three.
The streets were calm on Thursday although many shops remained shuttered in the city centre.
The dispute over the conduct of the elections and the subsequent violence punctured euphoria over the army’s removal of strongman Robert Mugabe last November and the hope that Zimbabwe might enter a new era of democracy after decades of political repression and economic ruin.
The international community’s view on the election is crucial to Harare’s efforts to patch up relations after years of hostility under Mugabe and secure the billions of dollars of donor funding and investment needed to rebuild its economy.
Observers from the Commonwealth, the group of mainly former British colonies Mnangagwa was hoping to rejoin, did not mince their words.
“We categorically denounce the excessive use of force against unarmed civilians,” former Ghanaian president John Mahama said in a statement on behalf of the Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth urged the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission to expedite announcement of the results of the presidential vote. The observers on Wednesday reported problems with the poll, including voter intimidation.
A British Foreign Office minister, Harriet Baldwin, urged political leaders to ensure calm and restraint.
The European Union said the elections were competitive and freedoms were respected, but there was a lack of a “truly level playing field”.
On Twitter, Mnangagwa called for an independent investigation into the violence and offered condolences to the families of victims.
He was in contact with Chamisa. There was no response from the MDC Alliance leader, who claimed several times on Twitter to have “won the popular vote” but provided no numbers or concrete evidence of fraud by the ruling ZANU-PF party.
The deployment of soldiers and the shooting and beating of unarmed protesters is likely to set back efforts to end the pariah status Zimbabwe acquired in the latter half of Mugabe’s nearly four decades in charge.
It is likely to confirm suspicions that the generals who ousted Mugabe – including army chief-turned vice-president Constantino Chiwenga – remain the pre-eminent political force.
“The unmeasured military response bears witness to a security apparatus little reformed since the Mugabe era,” said Christopher McKee, chief executive of political risk consultancy PRS Group.
“It matters little whether this heavy-handed response came on Mnangagwa’s orders: evidence the president lacks the authority to control the security forces will be just as damning in terms of the impact on Zimbabwe’s international rehabilitation.”
Piers Pigou, a Zimbabwe expert at the International Crisis Group think-tank agreed, saying: “Deployment of the army reveals the uncomfortable truth that, eight months after Mugabe was ousted in a coup, the army remains the pre-eminent political force.”
China, an important source of funding under Mugabe and Mnangagwa, said it believed the election generally proceeded in an orderly fashion. A foreign ministry spokesman “noted” reports of Wednesday’s violence.
The website of the election commission, expected to start announcing presidential election results on Thursday, was offline after being taken out by unidentified hackers overnight.
“Yesterday was a very sad day for Zimbabwe,” said minibus driver Gift.
“We hope things remain quiet and we can all forget about this election. We don’t know if it was fair. Government will do what they want.”