Armed Forces for the Defence of Mozambique


Armed Forces for the Defence of Mozambique

1. Order of battle
2. Overview
3. Defence economics
4. State of military forces
5. Country threat report

1. Order of Battle

Total force strength Army: 13 000
Navy: 200
Air Force: 1000
Armour 60: T-54
16: PT-76
Reconnaissance 28: BRDM-1/2
AIFV 40: BMP-1
APC 80: BTR-60
60: BTR-152
11: Casspir (Ex South African)
Artillery 20: M-1944 100 mm
12: M-101 105 mm
12: D-30 122 mm
6: M-46 130 mm
12: D-1 152 mm
180: M1942 76 mm
Multiple Rocket Launcher 12: BM-21 122 mm
Mortar 40: M-43 82 mm
12: M-43 120 mm
Anti-armour 20: AT-3 Sagger
12: AT-4 Spigot
Recoilless rifle 24: B-12 107 mm
6: D-84 85 mm
12: D-44 85 mm
Rocket launcher RPG-7 Knout 73 mm
Air defence gun M-55 20 mm
120: ZU-23-2 23 mm
90: M-1939 37 mm
60: S-60 57 mm
20: ZSU-57-2
Air defence missile 20: SA-7 Grail
Structure 7 infantry battalions
3 special forces battalions
2 artillery battalions
2 engineering battalions
1 logistics battalion
Air Force
Transport aircraft 6: An-26
2: 2: C-212 Aviocar
Trainer aircraft 5: Cessna 152
1: Cessna 182
4: Piper PA-32
Utility aircraft 2: Cessna 337/O-2
Combat helicopter 2: Mi-24 Hind
Transport helicopter 4: Mi-8 Hip
4: Alouette III
Patrol 2: Namacurra
8: patrol vessels (including RHIBS)
1: Pebane (ex-Spanish Navy Dragonera, a Conejera class patrol craft)

2. Overview

Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces: President Armando Emilio Guebuza
Prime Minister: Alberto Vaquina
National Defence Minister: Agostinho Mondlane
Chief of General Staff: General Graca Thomas Chongo
Member of: UN, AU, AfDB
Conscription: 24 months (selective; in practice voluntary forces)
3. Defence economics
Defence budget percentage per GDP (2000-2010)

Defence budget per US$ Mil (2000-2011)

Defence budget percentage growth (2000-2011)

4. State of military forces

Since the end of Mozambique’s civil war in the early 1990s, the country’s military has not been strong nor cohesive. It has suffered from low military salaries, low morale, corruption and poor discipline. The Armed Forces for the Defence of Mozambique (FADM) still face a serious shortage of manpower, largely due to suspicion and mistrust between government troops and former Renamo rebels.

Following the signing of the Rome peace accords which ended the civil war in 1992, Mozambique had envisaged the creation of an army of 35 000, but the FADM’s strength is estimated to be around 13 000. The vast majority of Mozambique’s military equipment is unserviceable, with some estimates putting it at 10% or less. Mozambique received much military assistance from the Soviet Union but since its collapse in the early 1990s, financial support dried up. The Air Force is almost entirely inoperable, although efforts have been made of late to restore some flying capability. The Navy is in a similarly poor state, with only a handful of functional vessels, including two Namacurra class harbour patrol boats supplied by South Africa between 2004 and 2005, and the Pebane ex-Spanish patrol vessel.

Due to its historic relationship with Mozambique, Portugal has provided military assistance through the CTM (Cooperação Técnico-Militar) technical military cooperation agreement. Portugal recently handed over sea rescue boats to the navy and two ex-Portuguese FTB-337G aircraft. Other countries that provide military assistance and training to Mozambique include the United States, China and Zimbabwe. China in particular has donated equipment and funding to the FADM.
5. Country threat report

Threat type Overview
External • Mozambique is facing no external military threat although maritime piracy originating out of Somalia remains a concern.
Internal • Mozambique is facing a resurgent low scale insurgency by RENAMO in the central regions of the country.
• Millions of landmines laid during more than 30 years of conflict pose continued danger.
Regional • Political tensions within Zimbabwe may affect Mozambique’s foreign security policies.
Political • Mozambique remains to a large extent politically stable, but balancing out ethnic tensions between the country’s Southern Shangaan and Northern Shona groups will remain a challenge for the Mozambique government.
Economic • Mozambique’s economy has grown considerably since the end of civil war in 1992 but the country remains one of the poorest and least developed countries globally.
• Recent coal discoveries in the centre of the country and oil and gas discoveries off the countries Northern coast are set to change the country’s economy.


Ministry of National Defence

Avenida Martires de Mueda



Tel +258 1492140