Russia signed at least 19 military co-operation deals with governments in sub-Saharan Africa since 2014, when it came under Western sanctions for annexing Crimea and stepped up efforts to diversify economic and diplomatic partnerships.
The agreements are typically valid for five years renewable and include Russian promises of hardware and training as well as co-ordination in areas such as counter-terrorism and piracy.
Details of the deals follow. Sources are Russia’s defence and foreign ministries unless stated.
BOTSWANA: August 2018. Commits the countries to working together on peacekeeping and military training.
BURKINA FASO: August 2018. Co-operation on countering terrorism. Deal is not yet in force.
BURUNDI: August 2018. Co-operation on counter-terrorism and joint training of troops.
CAMEROON: April 2015. Military and technical co-operation between the countries, according to Cameroon’s presidency.
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: August 2018. Signed at a state arms exhibition near Moscow attended by the two countries’ defence ministers, Russian news agencies reported.
CHAD: August 2017. Signed at Russia’s Army 2017 Forum. It includes anti-terrorism co-operation and joint training exercises.
ESWATINI: February 2017. Supply of weapons, maintenance and other military assistance.
ETHIOPIA: April 2018. The accord includes provisions for training and co-operation on peacekeeping, counter-terrorism and piracy efforts. Not yet in force.
GAMBIA: September 2016. Deal signed with government of former Gambian President Yahya Jammeh.
GHANA: June 2016. Military and technical co-operation between the countries. Not yet in force.
GUINEA: April 2018. Includes co-operation on peacekeeping, counter-terrorism, search and rescue at sea. Not yet in force.
MOZAMBIQUE: January 2017. Deliveries of military equipment, spares and components, according to Russia’s TASS state news agency.
NIGER: August 2017. Working meetings of military experts and co-operation on military education.
NIGERIA: August 2017. Includes co-operation on military training, peacekeeping and efforts to counter terrorism and piracy.
RWANDA: October 2016. Includes provisions for supply of weapons and other military equipment.
SIERRA LEONE: August 2018. Supply of weapons and other military equipment as well as provision of military technical assistance.
TANZANIA: January 2018. Arms shipments as well as joint training and research and development.
ZAMBIA: April 2017. Includes provision for the supply of weapons and delivery of spares.
ZIMBABWE: October 2015. Supply of weapons and co-operation on production of military products.